What is a face Transplant? How is it done?
Transplants are becoming increasingly popular in today’s world owing to the fact that they have helped so many people to begin a new life. One such type of transplant is face transplant which despite being a new concept has been gaining immense popularity these days as they have been helping survival victims of face trauma to start and live a new life. Face transplant is basically a medical procedure which aims at replacing all or a part of a person’s face by using tissues from a cadaver or a dead body. Face transplant surgery was first performed in France in 2005 however this type of a transplant became popular after the case of a suicide victim who was given a face transplant in United States of America was aired on every television channel. T
he face of the person was completely destroyed by shooting in the face and had to be restored using face transplant. Face transplant surgery can be done either for a full transplant or even partial transplants. The face transplant procedure involves removal of damaged tissues without causing any damage to the nerves and they using the tissues from a donor to replace the damaged tissues. The damaged tissues generally restrict the movement of the muscles and when these damaged tissues get removed the patient’s muscles are free to move again.
Organ transplantation in India has been made technically possible when the face of a girl in India was reattached after getting involved in an accident with a threshing machine. Face transplant is a complex procedure and takes months of planning. The recipient of the transplant is evaluated very carefully to ensure that best possible results are achieved. It is essential to have an experienced team at hand because a lot of precautions are to be taken so that there are complications like infection due to rejection are avoided as these complications can result in the death of the recipient. At times the infection may also be caused due to drugs given to prevent the immune system from rejecting the new face. Other than that there is fairly high chance of surgical risks as the procedure is very long requiring almost ten hours. During the procedure there might be blood loss, formation of blood clots and even infections. Then there are rejection risks to prevent which high dose of anti rejection drugs may be needed and the person needs to keep visiting the hospital. If this rejection is not controlled it may result in the death of the recipient. The recipient of the face transplant needs to take immunosuppressant drugs through out their life however these drugs can increase the risk of kidney damage, cancer and even diabetes. According to the best face transplant hospital in India, for the person to be applicable for face transplant the doctors need to check whether there is a severe facial disfiguration and if there is a loss of facial function such as chewing or talking. Then MRIs , CT scans and other medical examinations need to be carried out to check for the physical health examination.
The recipient should not be suffering from any chronic nerve conditions or should not be pregnant. Other criteria include that the person should not be a smoker, should not be consuming alcohol or any sort of drugs . The person should not be suffering from any infections. Once all these checks have been made then the blood type, tissue type, skin color , age and the comparable size of the donor is also considered for the transplant to be successful. Even after the transplant has been the person is advised to go for regular checkup to prevent any sort of complications.
Face transplant has given new hope to various patients who only dreamt of leading a normal life. It has proved to be a boon for patient suffering from various facial defectsand helped them to get back their self confidence. Face transplant is one of the best advancement in the field of Medical Sciences that has paved way for new possibilities.